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Sunday, 30 September 2012

Europa.


The story as told by Moschus, a Greek bucolic poet who lived in Syracuse (Sicily) in the 2nd century BC: 
Zeus was enamored of Europa and decided to seduce her. He transformed himself into a tame white bull and mixed in with her father's herds.
 While Europa and her female attendants were gathering flowers, she saw the bull, caressed his flanks, and eventually got onto his back. Zeus took that opportunity and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of Crete.
He then revealed his true identity, and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Zeus gave her a necklace made by Hephaestus and three additional gifts: Talos (the sun, also the name of a man made of bronze), Laelaps (a dog who never failed to catch what he was hunting) and a javelin that never missed.
Zeus later re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars, which is now known as the constellation Taurus.



It was hardly an abduction...

Even in folk tale versions of Europa's story, such as The Brown Bull of Norrowa (by Mrs Molesworth), the girl simply climbs up onto the broad, warm back of the ferocious bull and rides away.

And the bull is ferocious, don't be fooled.

Like Gugulanna, the Mesopotamian Bull of Heaven- this bull is a creature of earth-quake and lightning bolts.

In Europa's story the bull is Zeus, Deus, Tiwaz...the god of the gods.

Like Ereshkigal stolen by The Kur.
Or Persephone dragged down by the Lord of the Dead.

Deus is a force that may not be denied.

Europa's earliest literary reference is in the Iliad, which is commonly dated to the 8th century BCE.
Another early reference to her is in a fragment of the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, discovered at Oxyrhynchus.
The earliest vase-painting securely identifiable as Europa, dates from mid-7th century BCE.
Europa's name, if we follow the Mesopotamian link, means the quenching of light.

If Europa's name originates in Mesopotamia, it may come to us via the Akkadian word that gave us one of many words for the Greek underworld: erebus. From Akkadian " Erebu " meaning, sunset, evening" (hence, "darkness").

 Paris psalterNyx on the left is represented
 according to hellenistic conventions. AD 1000.
It is preserved in Hebrew as erebh and transferred to Greek via Homer as Erebus, the dark and gloomy space under the earth, through which the shades pass into Hades.

Its connection with Persephone is via the name Erishkigal.

e-ri-iš -Queen.
ki-gal -Great Earth.

If Hesiod took inspiration from stories he heard in the eighth or ninth century Greek trading colonies such as Al Mina in North Syria. It is reasonable to guess that in his theogeny Ereshkigal loses her name, becoming Nyx (night) the Queen of Darkness, and Persephone.

Linguistically there is no connection between the story of Europa and  darkness in Hesiod's Theogeny. But the Queen of darkness theme is too good for a story teller to throw away, as is that other part of Erishkigal's story- the abduction.



Hesiod wrote in 'Epic Greek', but probably spoke in his native local Boeotian dialect. The name Europa name may come from: eurus meaning broad or wide.

Note:-the letter that looks like a P is pronounced as an R.
Is it possible that the name Hesiod heard spoken by story-tellers: Erishkigal sounded to him like 'broad' something or other? and so Hesiod made Europa into a wide daughter of Terthys and Ocean?

If this is the case, Hesiod's Europa is a nymph, living in a river, or stream:
For there are three thousand neat-ankled daughters of Ocean who are dispersed far and wide, and in every place alike serve the earth and the deep waters, children who are glorious among goddesses. And as many other rivers are there, babbling as they flow, sons of Ocean, whom queenly Tethys bare, but their names it is hard for a mortal man to tell, but people know those by which they severally dwell.


Hesiod splits Erishkigal's story.
He tells her story through Nyx (Night, daughter of The Void) and Persephone.

The dread, terrifying aspect is given to the name Echidna :
 ...the goddess fierce Echidna who is half a nymph with glancing eyes and fair cheeks, and half again a huge snake, great and awful, with speckled skin, eating raw flesh beneath the secret parts of the holy earth. And there she has a cave deep down under a hollow rock far from the deathless gods and mortal men. There, then, did the gods appoint her a glorious house to dwell in: and she keeps guard in Arima beneath the earth, grim Echidna, a nymph who dies not nor grows old all her days.
Hesiod mentions Europa in passing; she is one nymph among many in a list, not a story. And yet she, like Persephone (another name among many in Hesiod, and only mentioned briefly) assumed a much greater importance in other people's work.

Persephone, regardless of Hesiod's lack of details about her, was an integral part of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Likewise Europa was recognised as an element of 'Phoenician' culture, and was linked to at least one religious site.

Herodotus.
Herodotus mentions Europa three times in his Histories (written between 450 to the 420 BC).

Right at the beginning of book one, Herodotus tells us that the abduction of women: Io, Europa, Medea and Helen, is the precursor to all the conflicts between the 'East' and the 'West'.

Between 'Persia' and 'Europe'.

He never doubts that Europa was a real woman, and that myth records *real* events.


Herodotus tells us that, the Phoenicians traded goods from Egypt and Assyria. They landed at many places on the coast, including Argos, which was then a very important Greek city. A group of women, including, Io, king Inachus's daughter went on board the Phoenician ships to see what they could buy, but the Phoenicians tried to seize the women; most escaped, but Io was among the captives.

The Phoenicians  set sail for Egypt.
"Thus did Io pass into Egypt, according to the Persian story, which differs widely from the Phoenician: and thus commenced, according to their authors, the series of outrages". 
"At a later period", Herodotus says:
"certain Greeks, with whose name they are unacquainted, but who would probably be Cretans, made a landing at Tyre, on the Phoenician coast, and bore off the king's daughter, Europa".
Europa was the daughter of  Agenor, the Phoenician king of Tyre, and after she has been taken, her brother, Cadmus leads the search. Cadmus searches on the island of Thera (Santorini) and leaves a number of Phoenicians there who latter settle, and raise families on the island.

Herodotus also tells us that Europa gave birth to two sons: Sarpedon and Minos who fought continually for possession of the throne of Crete.


Lucian of Samosata.
Meanwhile an eye witness account of a 'Phoenician' (Mesopotamian) origin of the abducted goddess story, and its conflation with Europa, comes from Lucian of Samosata (2nd century AD).

Lucian was an Assyrian who wrote satire and was fond of sarcasm (rather like Aristophanes), so it is difficult to know how to read him.

Lucian of Samosata was informed that the temple of Astarte in Phoenician Sidon, was sacred to Europa:
"There is likewise in Phœnicia a temple of great size owned by the Sidonians. They call it the temple of Astarte. I hold this Astarte to be no other than the moon-goddess. But according to the story of one of the priests this temple is sacred to Europa, the sister of Cadmus. She was the daughter of Agenor, and on her disappearance from Earth the Phœnicians honoured her with a temple and told a sacred legend about her; how that Zeus was enamoured of her for her beauty, and changing his form into that of a bull carried her off into Crete. This legend I heard from other Phœnicians as well; and the coinage current among the Sidonians bears upon it the effigy of Europa sitting upon a bull, none other than Zeus. Thus they do not agree that the temple in question is sacred to Europa..."






Finally.
Notes to follow:

+The Goddess and the Bull- Çatalhöyük.

+ What was carried out in absolute secrecy in Eleusis was also done in Crete.

Silver stator. Gortyna, Crete, 4th Century B.C.

____________________________________________

http://www.fjkluth.com/europa.html
http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hesiod/theogony.htm
http://www.san.beck.org/Eleusis-1.html



Thursday, 20 September 2012

Pole star.

The correct term is circumpolar stars.

There isn't just the one.
If we are talking history
Archaeology..

I like the idea of a fixed pole star.
I  believe in it
Because we have Polaris

2000 years ago, there was no pole star...

Now I actually think about the stars and their orbit around the sun and other suns
I feel my head start to spin.

Fact is...

There is no pole (even though we draw it, talk about it, use it).

The pole exists in relation to the sun.

Whilst a pole star is a position occupied by a star relative to earth.

The earth spins daily

Rotates yearly

And North (another imaginary feature of this planet) would point- if it existed-  another circle in the sky 26,000 years wide.

Procession.

Even magnetic north refuses to stay fixed
Moving about 40 miles a year....
Flips periodically upside down to the south
Between times seems to fracture..

But back to the stars
Stars closest to the tip of the pole appear to rotate least...
That much I find easy to understand.

Fact is
There was no pole star between 1550 BC and AD 800.

Does it matter?

Here is the path of the 'north' in the sky
And approximate years:


In 2750 BC the pole star was Thuban.

Monday, 17 September 2012

Geometry and manifestation.

 By K.S
The Priestess card relates to geometry and manifestation.

She stands at at the Temple of Solomon holding the book of law.

There are two pillars behind the Priestess; the right-hand column was called Joachin and it was associated with law and order; the left-hand column was called Boaz and symbolized strength.

This means that to build the Temple a culture needs the influence of law, whilst the knowledge of geometry provides the means. 

It is said that after the great flood, Pythagoras found the two pillars that had once stood at the entrance to the Temple of Solomon. 

All the secrets of Geometry were inscribed upon the two pillars and he, together with Hermes Trismegistos, took these secrets to the Greeks.

From Greece the knowledge spread through the Roman world; and via Vitruvius and latter Giovanni Battista Piranes, and his son Francesco Piranesi, the concept of Sacred Geometry eventually fractured into the Sacred, the profane and  the truly surreal .


This myth of Pythagoras, Hermes Trismegistos and the pillars of the first temple is found in the Masonic tradition, and encapsulates their avowed aim to build a better society, or, if you like, the wish to transmit enlightenment values through architecture.

As a result we have 'Masonic' knowledge embedded in many late 18th century buildings, but we also have  their shadow.

Giovanni Battista Piranesi is most famous for the Carceri d'Invenzione (Imaginary Prisons), a series of plates issued in 1749-50 and reworked in 1761.

Piranesi Carceri d'Invenzione from Grégoire Dupond on Vimeo.

William Beckford, the author of the Gothic novel, Vathek (1786) wrote:
'I drew chasms, and subterranean hollows, the domain of fear and torture, with chains, racks, wheels and dreadful engines in the style of Piranesi'
Thomas De Quincey in Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1820) wrote the following:
Many years ago, when I was looking over Piranesi's Antiquities of Rome, Mr. Coleridge, who was standing by, described to me a set of plates by that artist ... which record the scenery of his own visions during the delirium of a fever: some of them (I describe only from memory of Mr. Coleridge's account) representing vast Gothic halls, on the floor of which stood all sorts of engines and machinery, wheels, cables, pulleys, levers, catapults, etc., etc., expressive of enormous power put forth, and resistance overcome.
Creeping along the sides of the walls, you perceived a staircase; and upon it, groping his way upwards, was Piranesi himself: follow the stairs a little further, and you perceive it come to a sudden abrupt termination, without any balustrade, and allowing no step onwards to him who had reached the extremity, except into the depths below. ... But raise your eyes, and behold a second flight of stairs still higher: on which again Piranesi is perceived, but this time standing on the very brink of the abyss.
Again elevate your eye, and a still more aerial flight of stairs is beheld: and again is poor Piranesi busy on his aspiring labors: and so on, until the unfinished stairs and Piranesi both are lost in the upper gloom of the hall.

The imaginary prisons are now found in computer games, Piranesi-like distortions, labyrinths empty of purpose, zombie-infested dungeons.

Just for fun.


Friday, 14 September 2012

The Black Mass...

The Black Mass is an invention of the Inquisition who were set up specifically to destroy the Knights Templar under the pretext of rooting out  heresy.

Heresy was the Arian heresy- a philosophical debate about the true nature of Jesus. It had been decided at the Council of Nicaea (AD 325)  that  God, Jesus and the Holy Ghost (three in one) is like water, steam and ice- the same thing but different. 

It was and perhaps still is (?) heretical to say that Jesus is Divine in his own right. 

Those guilty of the Arian heresy say that God, Jesus and The Holy Ghost are too different to be the same thing and were persecuted by Theodosius 1, the same Theodosius that banned the worship of 'pagan' gods.

A thousand years latter, the populace could easily be forgiven for failing to get upset enough by this mistake, fine philosophical points about religion often require tedious explanations. Therefore other charges were required to destroy the Knights Templar; accusations of horrific crimes that no right minded individual could over look.

Thus the fantasy of the Black Mass was born.

The Templars were accused of spitting on and trampling the cross, and worshipping the Devil in the form of a black cat., and of prostrating themselves before an idol.  The name of this idol was Baphomet, apparently it was composed of stuffed human heads.

The Templars were 'the poor knights of Christ', soldiers who followed Constantine's lead and conquered 'in the sign of the cross', but during their one hundred and fifty year history they gained from their enemy- the Muslims- skills and knowledge which would latter enrich European life, making Europe a more civilized society.

As a section of the population the Templars were different from the beginning, neither priest nor soldier, a combination of the two: warrior monks. Eventually their difference from the ordinary people worked against them. People were made- it was after all an orchestrated campaign led by King Philip IV of France to destroy an oligarchy- to distrust the Templars. The false accusations stuck because after a century of war the Templars had learned to respect their enemy, not least because they were united in faith.

Accusations of worshiping Baphomet was clearly a mispronunciation of Mohamed. Neither Christian or Muslim worships idols, but heathens (who ever they are) do. The message remains; the Templars are heretics. It is unlikely that many if any Templars became Muslim, but not impossible. The accusation was an intensification of the original heresy charge, repackaged in a way people could understand and fear; the name  Baphomet sounds alien to European ears, and in the topsy turvy mirror world of satanic panic Baphomet could well be the name of a demon.

In 1312 the crime of worshipping Baphomet, plus numerous other false charges succeeded in bringing about the destruction of the Knights Templar, who were arrested, tortured into confessing to the imaginary crimes, and then burnt at the stake.

Their considerable wealth was seized by the state.

Now given credence by the executions The Black Mass- the worship of  a strange idol- remained in the popular imagination as an authentic danger. One hundred years after the Templars had been burned at the stake Baron Gilles de Rais, was accused of conducting Black Masses in the cellar of his castle. The accusation claimed that he kidnapped, tortured, and murdered more than 140 children as sacrifices.

He was executed in 1440.

Why did he do it?
It was said that he did it in order to gain riches and power. 

Did he do it?
No one knows...but he endured three days of torture.

By the 19th century Satanic panic was over, but the subject remained a source of fascination.

As to what one should do to perform a Black Mass, this account of The mass of Saint-Secaire (performed to curse someone to death) was written in 1843:

The Mass of Saint Sécaire can only be said in a church where it is forbidden to congregate, because it is half-ruined, or because things were done there which no Christian should do. From these churches, the horned owls, the screech owls and the bats make their paradises. Gypsies lodge there. Under the altar, there are a bevy of singing toads.
The bad priest brings with him his mistress, to serve as his clerk. He must be alone in the church with this sow, and to have enjoyed a good supper. At the first stroke of eleven o'clock, he begins the mass, reading the whole thing backwards from the end, finishing at midnight exactly. The host is black, and has three points. The bad priest does not consecrate wine. He drinks the water of a well into which a child, who died unbaptized, has been thrown. The sign of the cross is always made on the ground, and with the left foot.
Singing toads is a new one...I find myself asking, are the toads essential?

What if you don't have any toads, would a recording do?

Though the Inquisition were instrumental in creating a belief in The Black Mass, there are antecedents. The description of the Roman Bacchanalia as described by Livy:
There was no crime, no deed of shame, wanting. More uncleanness was committed by men with men than with women. Whoever would not submit to defilement, or shrank from violating others, was sacrificed as a victim. To regard nothing as impious or criminal was the sum total of their religion. The men, as though seized with madness and with frenzied distortions of their bodies, shrieked out prophecies; the matrons, dressed as Bacchae, their hair disheveled, rushed down to the Tiber River with burning torches, plunged them into the water, and drew them out again, the flame undiminished because they were made of sulfur mixed with lime. Men were fastened to a machine and hurried off to hidden caves, and they were said to have been taken away by the gods. These were the men who refused to join their conspiracy or take part in their crimes or submit to their pollution.
And latter this most famous description of a witch from Lucan in book 6 of his Pharsalia (A.D 61-65).

The witch Erictho brings a corpse back to life to tell the future.

 Where lay a corpse upon the naked earth
     On ravening birds and beasts of prey the hag
     Kept watch, nor marred by knife or hand her spoil,
     Till on his victim seized some nightly wolf; (36)
     Then dragged the morsel from his thirsty fangs;
     Nor fears she murder, if her rites demand
     Blood from the living, or some banquet fell
     Requires the panting entrail.  Pregnant wombs
     Yield to her knife the infant to be placed
     On flaming altars: and whene'er she needs
660  Some fierce undaunted ghost, he fails not her
     Who has all deaths in use.  Her hand has chased
     From smiling cheeks the rosy bloom of life;
     And with sinister hand from dying youth
     Has shorn the fatal lock: and holding oft
     In foul embraces some departed friend
     Severed the head, and through the ghastly lips,
     Held by her own apart, some impious tale
     Dark with mysterious horror hath conveyed
     Down to the Stygian shades.


It has long been known that the fear witchcraft inspires is more dangerous than the reality. The potency of this fear (rather than a desire to deal with any spirit or god) is what draws some groups of people to borrow its symbols and structures.

Most often the users do not believe that the symbols have any intrinsic power and conclude that it is legitimate to write of witches sacrificing babies and of singing toads and to make up anything shocking for the purposes of selling their books or papers.

Another section likewise know the symbols to be worldly artifacts with no connection to other worlds or beings, but use the fear these images inspire, to empower, or protect their work- The Steganographia (written c.1499) by  Trithemius is one of those books. Ostensibly it is a book about withcraft, but a closer inspection shows it to be a work of cryptography: the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties.

Trithemius wrote of cryptography as a...
"...secular consequent of the ability of a soul specially empowered by God to reach, by magical means, from earth to Heaven"
Cryptography, rather like the internet, is pretty close to magic.

The last executions for witchcraft in England had taken place in 1682, when Temperance Lloyd, Mary Trembles, and Susanna Edwards were executed at Exeter. Jane Wenham was among the last subjects of a typical witch trial in England in 1712, but was pardoned after her conviction and set free. Other people were executed after her, but the passion for persecuting witches was soon to be over.

As the state-level paranoia created by king James 1 subsided, the devil became a less serious matter until it became nothing but a symbol, waiting for someone to write a new narrative. In the early 19th century, Eliphas Levi (a friend of the man 'who created Vril- Bulwar-Lytton) ,  took the word: Baphomet and linked it to images in paintings by Goya's image of a sabbat,  and Herodotus.

Translation from Herodotus by Wallis Budge:
At several places in the Delta, e.g. Hermopolis, Lycopolis, and Mendes, the god Pan and a goat were worshipped; Strabo, quoting (xvii. 1, 19) Pindar, says that in these places goats had intercourse with women, and Herodotus (ii. 46) instances a case which was said to have taken place in the open day. The Mendisians, according to this last writer, paid reverence to all goats, and more to the males than to the females, and particularly to one he-goat, on the death of which public mourning is observed throughout the whole Mendesian district; they call both Pan and the goat Mendes, and both were worshipped as gods of generation and fecundity. Diodorus (i. 88) compares the cult of the goat of Mendes with that of Priapus, and groups the god with the Pans and the Satyrs. The goat referred to by all these writers is the famous Mendean Ram, or Ram of Mendes, the cult of which was, according to Manetho, established by Kakau, the king of the IInd dynasty.[49]



In this painting Goya depicts mothers offering children to a goat-like animal. The image is reminiscent of the biblical accounts of offerings to Moloch.

An 18th-century German illustration of Moloch
 ("Der Götze Moloch" i.e. Moloch, the false god).


Meaning the people offering their children to a monster out of animal cravings and stupidity...

Goya did not believe in monsters


Goya: Nightmares are creatures of the imagination.



Goya's depictions of witchcraft mocked what he saw as medieval fears
 exploited for political gain.

Nevertheless Eliphas Levi picked up the image and describes the goat of the sabbot as The Goat of Mendes in Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie1855.

In 1919 Magick (Book 4), Alistair Crowley describes Baphomet as a divine androgyne and "the hieroglyph of arcane perfection":


The Devil does not exist. It is a false name invented by the Black Brothers to imply a Unity in their ignorant muddle of dispersions. A devil who had unity would be a God... 'The Devil' is, historically, the God of any people that one personally dislikes... This serpent, SATAN, is not the enemy of Man, but He who made Gods of our race, knowing Good and Evil; He bade 'Know Thyself!' and taught Initiation. He is 'The Devil' of the Book of Thoth, and His emblem is BAPHOMET, the Androgyne who is the hieroglyph of arcane perfection... He is therefore Life, and Love. But moreover his letter is ayin, the Eye, so that he is Light; and his Zodiacal image is Capricornus, that leaping goat whose attribute is Liberty
The image of the satanic great goat does not go away.

In 1921 Margaret Murray in The Witch-Cult in Western Europe wrote that the devil was said to appear as "a great Black Goat with a Candle between his Horns".




So when people blog about  Illuminati symbols in pop videos

Nothing new here folks, move on!





Chapter 1.


The obvious place to start this book is Sicily or Greece. A book on the myth of Persephone should be written in a place where the Mediterranean sun shines, by a person who is part of a religious community worshiping the Magna Mata; it should be writain by someone who knows something about the myth of Persephone from the inside out -if I am going to be able to tell you something that you don’t know.